How to check your SSD health in Ubuntu 22.04 / Linux Mint 21

This simple tutorial shows how to easily check your SSD health in Ubuntu and/or Linux Mint desktop.

I’ve been running Ubuntu Linux on my old laptop for about 7 years. Everything works well, but it recently refuses to boot sometimes when pressing on the physical power button. Not sure what’s the problem, but I guess it’s something to do the data reading issue from SSD drive.

In Windows 10, I prefer to use CrystalDiskInfo which is super easy to understand for beginners. For Linux, there’s a tool GSmartControl available for choice.

1. First, the tool is available in most Linux’s system repositories. User can just search for and install it from system package manager. For Ubuntu, it’s available to install via Ubuntu Software app:

For those familiar with Linux command can run a single command in terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) to install it:

sudo apt install gsmartcontrol

2. After that, search for and launch it from start menu (or Activities overview). It will list your SSD drive in the app window.

By double-clicking on the disk icon or go menu “Device -> View Details” will open the information dialog that you need.

Things are not so easy to read for beginners. But it will highlight something that is not going well with red text font or background.

By moving mouse cursor over any item in the app window, there will be a tool-tip pop-over that explain with detailed information. As the screenshot below shows, it shows you:

  • power-on time.
  • total disk read and write.
  • read error rate.
  • temperature and other information.

For those prefer a percentage value of the device life, go “Statistics” tab and check the value of Percentage Used Endurance Indicator. In my case as the screenshot shows, there should be still 93% left.

And you can click on “View Output” button to view all the info as text, copy and paste them into online forums to ask for help! Or, run a “Self-Tests” manually to see if there’s any error.

How To Install Git On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS [2023]

How To Install Git On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

In this tutorial post, we will show you the ways to install Git on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. Git is a free and open-source distributed version control system.

How To Install Git On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS [2023]

Before starting the installation of Git on Ubuntu, we need to make sure that all packages installed on Ubuntu 22.04 are up to date. Run the following command to see whether the packages are up to date or not.

 apt update -y

In most cases, Ubuntu 22.04 LTS should have the git package installed by default. Run the following command to check if you have git installed or not. If you already have git installed on your system, this command will display the version of git you currently have installed on your system.

 git --version
Output
git version 2.34.1

If the git package is not installed, run the following commands in your Ubuntu 22.04 LTS:

apt update
apt install git

Enter ‘Y’ to continue the installation.

To verify whether the installation was successful or not, you can run the git –version command again.

Meanwhile, if you want to install a different version of Git then run the following command to check which git version is available to install.

 apt-cache policy git

How To Install git from Source On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

If you want to Install the latest or different version of git then you can do it by installing git from the source. Run the following commands one by one to update the packages and install all the dependencies needed.

 apt update
 apt install libz-dev libssl-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libexpat1-dev gettext cmake gcc

If you are confused about the version, you can visit the website https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/ and you can choose which git version you want to install.  Now, after finalizing the version, run the following command to download Git.

 wget https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/git-2.9.5.tar.gz

Now unpack the compressed tarball file:

 tar -xzf git-2.9.5.tar.gz

Next move to the git directory:

 cd git-2.9.5

Now, it’s time to install git on Ubuntu.

 make prefix=/usr/local all
 make prefix=/usr/local install
 exec bash

Run the following command to check if the installation was completed or not

 git --version

This Indicator Shows CPU, GPU, Memory Usage on Ubuntu 22.04 Panel

There are several Gnome Shell extensions to display system resource usage in Ubuntu, but in this tutorial I’m going to introduce an indicator that works in not only GNOME, but also Unity, MATE, and Budgie desktop environments.

It’s Indicator-SysMonitor, a free and open-source applet developed by the leader of Ubuntu Budgie team.

With it, user can display the usage and/or temperature of the following system resource in top-panel:

  • average CPU usage.
  • NVIDIA GPU utilization.
  • Memory usage.
  • network upload/download speed.
  • CPU, NVIDIA GPU temperature.
  • Swap usage.
  • Public IP address.

Most important is that user can customize the output, by setting which one or ones to display, in which order with which text. User just need to click the indicator on panel to open ‘Preferences’ dialog from pop-down menu, and format the output code in ‘Advanced’ tab.

How to Install Indicator-Sysmonitor

The developer has an Ubuntu PPA contains the packages for Ubuntu 18.04, Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 22.04, Ubuntu 22.10, and even the next Ubuntu 23.04.

1. First, press Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard to open a terminal window. When it opens, run command to add the PPA:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:fossfreedom/indicator-sysmonitor

Type user password when it asks and hit Enter to continue.

2. For the old Ubuntu 18.04, you need to manually refresh package index after adding PPA:

sudo apt update

3. And, install the indicator applet via command:

sudo apt install indicator-sysmonitor

Finally, search for and open the applet like a normal application (it has same icon to System Monitor).

And click on the applet to open Preferences, and turn on start at login, configure output layout, refresh interval, etc.

Uninstall Indicator-Sysmonitor

You can close the applet by clicking on it in panel and select “Quit”. And remove the package at any time by running a single command in terminal window:

sudo apt remove indicator-sysmonitor

Also remove the PPA repository, either by running the command below or open “Software & Updates”and remove source line under “Other Software” tab.

sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:fossfreedom/indicator-sysmonitor

How to Install LightZone RAW Photo Editor in Ubuntu 22.04 | 20.04

There are several Lightroom alternative applications for editing your photos. LightZone is one of them works in Linux.

It’s a free and open-source professional-level digital darkroom and photo editor written in Java. It has less features than the popular Darktable and RawTherapee, but it’s good at processing black and white photos.

LightZone features include:

  • Windows, macOS, and Linux support.
  • Support RAW files for a variety of cameras.
  • Batch processing.
  • Range of available style filters
  • Many non-destructive tools
  • Raw tone curve modification

How to Install LightZone in Ubuntu:

The software has an official PPA so far with Ubuntu 18.04, Ubuntu 20.04, Ubuntu 22.04, Linux Mint 21/20 support.

1. First, press Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard to open a terminal window. When it opens, run command to add the PPA repository:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:lightzone-team/lightzone

Type user password (no asterisk feedback) when it asks and hit enter to continue.

2. For Linux Mint and old Ubuntu 18.04, user need to manually refresh the system package index by running command:

sudo apt update

3. Finally, install this photo editing tool via command:

sudo apt install lightzone

With the PPA, you don’t have to run the apt command again and again, the future release page will be available to install in Software Updater (Update Manager) utility.

After installation, search for and launch the editor either from start menu or ‘Activities’ overview depends on your system.

Uninstall LightZone

To remove the photo editor, open a terminal window and run command:

sudo apt remove --autoremove lightzone

And remove the PPA repository either via “Software & Updates” utility under Other Software tab, or by running command:

sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:lightzone-team/lightzone

Wine 8.0 Stable Released! How to Install in Ubuntu 22.04 | 22.10

Wine, the compatibility layer for running MS Windows apps in Linux and macOS, announced new stable 8.0 release after 1 year of development.

Wine 8.0 has finally completed PE conversion. All modules can be built in PE format. Meaning various features to be supported, such as copy protection, 32-bit applications on 64-bit hosts, Windows debuggers, x86 applications on ARM, etc.

Wow64 (Microsoft’s subsystem for running 32 bit applications on 64-bit Windows) is implemented for essentially all Unix libraries. Once the legacy calls removed, it will be possible to run 32-bit Windows applications on Linux without any 32-bit Wine libraries.

Other changes in Wine 8.0 include:

  • Print Processor architecture implemented.
  • Enable light theme for configuration by default.
  • Convert the graphics drivers to run on the Unix side of the syscall boundary.
  • Effects are supported in Direct2D.
  • Direct3D improved with more graphics cards support.
  • Greatly improved the controller hotplug support.
  • Support Sony DualShock and DualSense controllers when the hidraw backend is used.
  • Introduce Windows.Gaming.Input API with hotplug notifications, force feedback effects and haptics, as well as trigger rumble support.
  • Mono engine updated to 7.4.0

How to Install Wine 8.0 in Ubuntu and Linux Mint

Winehq website now has a good tutorial teaching about how to install Wine packages in Ubuntu based systems. And, here is a re-write with more descriptions.

1. First, press Ctrl+Alt+T on keyboard to open a terminal window. When it opens, run command:

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386

This command makes it possible to install 32-bit packages in 64-bit Ubuntu, since Wine at the moment still requires a lot of 32-bit libraries.

2. Then, run command in terminal to create “keyrings” folder under ‘/etc/apt’ directory for storing the keys. With -p flag, it ignores error if that folder already exist.

sudo mkdir -p /etc/apt/keyrings

3. Next, use wget command line downloader to download the GPG key for winehq repository, and store in the folder you created in last step.

sudo wget -O /etc/apt/keyrings/winehq-archive.key https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/winehq.key

4. Now, run command to download the config file for Winehq apt repository and store in ‘/etc/apt/sources.list.d/’.

sudo wget -NP /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/dists/$(lsb_release -sc)/winehq-$(lsb_release -sc).sources

IMPORTANT: This command is for Ubuntu 22.10, 22.04, 20.04, 18.04 only! For Linux Mint, Zorin OS, etc, you have to replace the “$(lsb_release -sc)” in command with the codename of Ubuntu version your system is based on:

  • For Ubuntu 22.10 based system, use kinetic.
  • For Ubuntu 22.04 based system (e.g., Linux Mint 21), use jammy instead.
  • For Ubuntu 20.04 based (e.g., Zorin OS 16.x), use focal.
  • For Ubuntu 18.04 based system, use bionic

5. After setting up the Wine’s official apt repository, run the command below to fetch package index:

sudo apt update

In the output, there should be a output line indicates Get x https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu xxxxx InRelease.

6. Finally, install Wine stable 8.0, as well as dependency libraries via command:

sudo apt install --install-recommends winehq-stable

7. After successfully installed Wine packages, run command to generate the config files and open the configuration dialog.

winecfg

There you can verify Wine version and change the settings of this layer.

8 Finally, right-click on your EXE file in file manager and select “Open With Wine Windows Program Loader” (or select it from open with other applications dialog). See if Wine supports your Windows app.

How to Remove Wine 8.0

To remove the software package as well as dependency libraries, simply open terminal and run command:

sudo apt remove --autoremove winehq-stable

Also, remove the Wine apt repository by removing the source file:

sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/winehq-*.sources

And remove the key file via:

sudo rm /etc/apt/keyrings/winehq-archive.key

Finally, remember to refresh package index via sudo apt update command.

How To Install Python On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

How to Install Python on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

In this tutorial, we will show you the easy way to install Python on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS.

How To Install Python On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

Run the following command to check whether python is installed on Ubuntu or not:

python

Run the following to check if Python3 is installed as Python3 comes by default with Ubuntu 22.04. To check the installed version of “python3”, run the following command:

python3

Install python-is-python3 On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

Run the following command to install “python-is-python3” package on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. This package redirects Python to Python3 by creating a symbolic link of Python3 for Python.

sudo apt install python-is-python3

Run the following command to verify the availability of the default Python3:

python3 --version

How to Uninstall Python From Ubuntu 22.04 LTS?

sudo apt remove python3

How to Install a Different Version of Python From Source On Ubuntu 22.04 LTS?

First, run the following command to install the required dependencies on Ubuntu.

sudo apt install build-essential zlib1g-dev libncurses5-dev libgdbm-dev libnss3-dev libssl-dev libreadline-dev libffi-dev libsqlite3-dev libbz2-dev

Now, download the required Python package with the following command:

wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.11.1/Python-3.11.1.tgz

Now, run the following command to extract the Python Source Files:

tar -xvf Python-3.11.1.tgz

After extracting Python, run the following command to configure Python:

cd Python-3.11.1
./configure--enable-optimizations

Compile the source file:

make

Now, it’s time to install Python with the following command:

sudo make altinstall

After all this steps, run the following command to check the version of Python:

python3.11 --version

Stupid Easy Way to Transfer Small Files to or from Ubuntu 22.04

There are quite a few ways to transfer files between different machines. For Ubuntu and most other Linux, here’s an easy way for choice.

Usually, I use a USB cable or a messenger app for transferring photo images between my personal PC and mobile devices.

However, my USB cable is always NOT near at hand and I hate to scan QR code again and again on PC for logging 3rd app. In this case, creating a temporary http file server with Python is an easy and good choice.

Upside and downside

Python is pre-installed in most Linux Distros. So this is an universal method for Linux. It also works in Windows and macOS with Python programming language installed.

As a simply http server, any devices with a web browser can download (or upload) files from/to the server side either over local network or internet.

However, http is NOT designed for transferring files. It’s OK to handle small files (e.g., photo images and short videos less than a few hundred MB). But for large files with a few GB or more file size, it may not work! As well, it’s NOT secure for accessing important files outside from local network.

Single command to create a Python http server:

For those who are new to Linux, user may first open file manager, navigate to the folder that contains the files to share with other device, right-click on blank area and select “Open in Terminal”.

It will open a terminal window and automatically navigate to that folder as working directory.

Or, you can also open terminal from start menu and run cd command to navigate directory. For example, run the command below to navigate to user’s Pictures folder:

cd ~/Pictures

Then, run the single command to start a http file server (For some Linux, replace python3 with python in command):

python3 -m http.server

By default, it listens to port 8000. If the port is already in use, use python3 -m http.server 9090 to set another port number (change number 9090 as you want).

After that, visit http://ip-address:8000 (change number 8000 if you set another port) in any device via a web browser. You can then open and/or right-click save as to download any file from that folder.

Create python http server with upload support

1. If you want to send files from any device to Ubuntu Linux, open terminal and run command:

python3 -m pip install --user uploadserver

Install pip first via sudo apt install python3-pip if the command above does not work. This command will install a Python module uploadserver.

2. Then open or navigate to your desired folder in terminal window, and run command to create simple http file server with both download and upload support:

python3 -m uploadserver

Also specify port number if you want, for example, python3 -m uploadserver 9990

3. Finally, visit http://ip-address:8000 in any device via web browser can access and download files. Or, go to http://ip-address:8000/upload for uploading files.

For security reason, you may add a token authentication so client machines need to verify before being able to upload a file. To do so, run the command below instead in Ubuntu Linux:

python3 -m uploadserver -t password_here

This Extension Can Save & Restore All Open App Windows in Ubuntu 22.04

I don’t remember when’s the last time auto-save session feature works correctly in my Ubuntu machine. While, enabling hibernation could be the best choice now to save and restore all open app windows in Ubuntu.

But for those who really like the auto-save session feature, here’s an Gnome Shell extension can do the job partially.

It’s ‘Another Window Session Manager’, an extension which adds an indicator icon on top panel system tray area. It provides an option to manually save all open windows, then allows to restore either manually via menu button or automatically at login.

Save open windows

Not only for classic Xorg, but it also supports Wayland session. Also, it remembers window size, position, and workspace. The downsides are that it does not restore the window workspace correctly sometimes, and restores some apps in empty window rather than last open files or URLs.

The extension is not perfect so far, but anyhow it’s better than nothing!

How to Install this session restore extension:

The extension so far support for Gnome 40, 41, 42 and 43. Meaning not only for Ubuntu 22.04, Ubuntu 22.10, it also works in Fedora 35/36/37 workstation, Rocky Linux 9, Arch, and other Linux with recent GNOME desktop.

For Ubuntu 22.04+, first search for and install “Extension Manager” app from Ubuntu Software.

Install Extension Manager in Ubuntu 22.04+

Then, use the tool to search and install “Another Window Session Manager” under Browse tab.

For Fedora 35/36/37 and other Linux with GNOME, visit the extension web page and use ON/OFF switch to install it.

Enable Restore open windows at login

The feature to restore all open app windows on startup after user login is not enabled by default.

You can need to do following steps one by one to enable the function:

    1. First, go to ‘Installed’ tab in Extension Manager. Then open the configuration dialog for the extension, by clicking on the gear button. (or install Gnome Extensions app and use the tool to open the settings).
    2. Next, navigate to “Restore Sessions” tab and:
      • enable ‘Restore at startup’ toggle option.
      • enable ‘Restore at startup without asking’ to skip the confirm dialog on each login (optional)

Finally, open the indicator menu, and turn on the ON/OFF switch for your saved session, so it will restore automatically at next login.

That’s all. Enjoy!

Kernel 6.1 (6.1.6) Available to Install in Ubuntu 22.04 via Mainline PPA

For those who want to try out the latest Linux Kernel 6.1.x, the Mainline Kernel PPA finally works again.

Ubuntu developer team maintains the Mainline Kernel PPA with latest Kernel packages. It however failed to build for all the Kernel releases since v6.0.10.

After more than a month until the release of Kernel 6.1.4, the maintainers finally fixed the issue and built the kernel packages correctly for Ubuntu 22.04 +.

How to Install Kernel 6.1.x in Ubuntu 22.04

NOTE: Mainline Kernels are built for testing purpose! They are not supported and are not appropriate for production use. Use them at your own risk

Unlike normal Ubuntu PPAs, there’s no need to add the Mainline PPA into system repository. Just download the .deb packages from the repository page and install them.

1. At the moment of writing, the latest version is Kernel 6.1.6, available to download at the link below. For other versions, go to this page.

For modern 64-bit computer/laptop, select download the top 4 amd64/build packages. For arm64 devices, download the 3 of next 6 packages (either with or without 64k). There are as well the packages for armhf, ppc64el, and s390x available to download.

Or, user can run commands below one by one in terminal to download the packages (64-bit only):

wget -c https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v6.1.6/amd64/linux-headers-6.1.6-060106-generic_6.1.6-060106.202301141035_amd64.deb

wget -c https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v6.1.6/amd64/linux-headers-6.1.6-060106_6.1.6-060106.202301141035_all.deb

wget -c https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v6.1.6/amd64/linux-image-unsigned-6.1.6-060106-generic_6.1.6-060106.202301141035_amd64.deb

wget -c https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v6.1.6/amd64/linux-image-unsigned-6.1.6-060106-generic_6.1.6-060106.202301141035_amd64.deb

2. After downloading the packages, install them via apt command.

If you downloaded the packages via web browser link, you may first open the Downloads folder in file manager. Then, right-click on blank area and select “Open in Terminal” first to open that folder as working directory in terminal.

Finally, run command to install all .deb packages in the folder:

sudo apt install ./*.deb

3. When done, restart your machine and verify your kernel via command:

uname -a

NOTE: Mainline Kernels are not signed. You may need to disable Secure Boot in BIOS to make it work.

Uninstall Kernel 6.1.x

For any reason, you can easily remove the Kernel by doing following steps.

1. Firstly, reboot and select the old Kernel in boot menu under “Advanced Options for Ubuntu”.

2. Open terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T), and run command to remove Kernel you just installed (change version number accordingly):

sudo apt remove --autoremove linux-modules-6.1.6-060106-generic linux-headers-6.1.6-060106

Tip: you may type linux-modules-6 and hit Tab key to auto-complete the package name. Also type linux-headers-6 and hit Tab for the second.